Nimbus JOSE + JWT

  • The most popular and robust Java and Android library for JSON Web Tokens (JWT)
  • Supports all standard signature (JWS) and encryption (JWE) algorithms, including recent developments such secp256k1, ECDH-1PU and XC20P
  • Open source Apache 2.0 license

Secure your tokens and APIs

This library implements the Javascript Object Signing and Encryption (JOSE) and JSON Web Token (JWT) standards, with comprehensive yet easy to use security for:

  • Signing and encrypting tokens, such as self-contained OAuth 2.0 access tokens and OpenID Connect identity tokens
  • Self-contained API keys, with optional revocation
  • Stateless sessions
  • Security event tokens
  • Applying signatures or authenticated encryption to content and messages
  • Authenticating clients and web API requests

Hello, world!

// Create an HMAC-protected JWS object with some payload
JWSObject jwsObject = new JWSObject(new JWSHeader(JWSAlgorithm.HS256),
                                    new Payload("Hello, world!"));

// We need a 256-bit key for HS256 which must be pre-shared
byte[] sharedKey = new byte[32];
new SecureRandom().nextBytes(sharedKey);

// Apply the HMAC to the JWS object
jwsObject.sign(new MACSigner(sharedKey));

// Output in URL-safe format
System.out.println(jwsObject.serialize());

Looking for more examples?

Maven

For Java 7+ check out the latest release:

<dependency>
    <groupId>com.nimbusds</groupId>
    <artifactId>nimbus-jose-jwt</artifactId>
    <version>9.x</version>
</dependency>

Go to the downloads page for more instructions.

Full compact JOSE and JWT support

Create, serialise and process:

  • JSON Web Signature (JWS) secured objects
  • JSON Web Encryption (JWE) secured objects
  • Signed and / or encrypted JSON Web Tokens (JWTs)

Unsecured (alg=none) objects and JWTs are also supported.

Supported JOSE serialisations:

  • Compact -- the most commonly used (by JWTs)
  • JSON:
    • General syntax -- supports multiple JWS signatures or JWE recipients
    • Flattened syntax -- optimised JSON syntax

All standard JWS and JWE algorithms are covered

Check out our algorithm selection guide if you're unsure which JWS or JWE is appropriate for your application.

JWS

MAC / signature JWS alg identifiers
HMAC integrity HS256, HS384 and HS512
RSASSA-PKCS1-V1_5 signatures RS256, RS384 and RS512
RSASSA-PSS signatures PS256, PS384 and PS512
EC signatures ES256, ES256K, ES384 and ES512
EdDSA signatures EdDSA

Based on the standard secp256k1 curve.

JWE

Key management JWE alg identifiers
RSAES-PKCS1-V1_5 encryption RSA1_5
RSAES OAEP encryption RSA-OAEP, RSA-OAEP-256, RSA-OAEP-384, RSA-OAEP-512
AES key wrap encryption A128KW, A192KW and A256KW
Direct shared symmetric key encryption dir
Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman key agreement ECDH-ES, ECDH-ES+A128KW, ECDH-ES+A192KW and ECDH-ES+A256KW
Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman public key authenticated encryption ECDH-1PU, ECDH-1PU+A128KW, ECDH-1PU+A128KW and ECDH-1PU+A256KW
AES GCM key wrap encryption A128GCMKW, A192GCMKW and A256GCMKW
PBES2 key encryption PBES2-HS256+A128KW, PBES2-HS384+A192KW and PBES2-HS512+A256KW

Encryption methods JWE enc identifiers
AES/CBC/HMAC/SHA authenticated encryption A128CBC-HS256, A192CBC-HS384, A256CBC-HS512, A128CBC+HS256 (deprecated) and A256CBC+HS512 (deprecated)
AES in Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) A128GCM, A192GCM and A256GCM
Extended nonce ChaCha20-Poly1305 XC20P

Compression JWE zip identifier
RFC 1951 DEFLATE

JWK

Key type JWK kty identifier
RSA (RFC 3447) RSA
Elliptic Curve (DSS) EC
Octet sequence (symmetric key) oct
Octet key pair (RFC 8037) OKP

The JOSE / JWT layer is neatly decoupled from the underlying cryptography

Neat interfaces decouple the JOSE / JWT layer from the JWA cryptography code for signing / verification and encryption / decryption. Multiple JCA providers, including hardware-based (smart cards and HSM), are supported. You can use the available algorithm implementations or plug your own.

JavaDocs

Use the comprehensive JavaDocs as API reference and to discover the library's many features and capabilities. You can browse the API docs online or download them from Maven Central.

Implemented specifications

From the JOSE, OAuth, COSE working groups and other sources:

  • Web Cryptography API -- W3C effort to specify a standard JavaScript API for performing cryptographic operations in the browser.

System requirements and dependencies

The Nimbus JOSE + JWT library works with Java 7+ and has minimal dependencies.

  • JSON Smart for efficient parsing and serialisation of JSON. Shaded since v9.0 to prevent potential version conflicts in projects with other dependencies on JSON Smart.

  • JCIP for concurrency annotations.

  • (optional) BouncyCastle can be used as an alternative cryptographic backend via the standard Java Cryptography Architecture (JCA) interface. Developers typically resort to BouncyCastle if they use Java 7 which doesn't support certain operations for JWS and JWE. See JCA algorithm support for more info.

  • (optional) BouncyCastle FIPS as a FIPS 140-2, Level 1 compliant JCA provider. Must not be imported as dependency together with the plain BouncyCastle provider!

  • (optional) Tink for handling Ed25519 signatures (RFC 8037), ECDH with X25519 (RFC 8037) and content encryption with Extended nonce ChaCha20-Poly1305 (XC20P, draft-amringer-jose-chacha-02).

JWK generator

A tool for generating RSA, EC and symmetric JSON Web Keys (JWKs) is also available, thanks to Justin Richer. He also hosts an online version.

License

The library source code is made available under the Apache 2.0 license.

To post bug reports and suggestions

Your feedback is important. Read how to submit bug reports and suggestions. Here is a list of new features and algorithms that the we would like to see implemented and supported by the library.

History

Development of this library was started by Connect2id in January 2012. The initial code was based on JWS/JWE/JWT crypto classes factored out of the OpenInfoCard project. A rewrite to fully decouple the JOSE + JWT object representation from the crypto implementation led to the next major 2.0 release in October 2012. Today the library is used by our OpenID Connect server and numerous other products and services in identity, messaging, mobile and finance.

Acknowledgements

  • Axel Nennker and the developers behind OpenInfoCard for providing much of the initial code.
  • SICPA and DSR Corporation, Alexander Martynov, Alexander Sherbakov, Yolan Romailler and Patrick McClurg for contributing EDCH-1PU and XC20P support.
  • Justin Richer for handling initial releases to Maven Central, JPSK support, numerous improvements, fixes and suggestions.
  • Melisa Halsband from CertiVox for implementing AES key wrap and AES GCM key wrap encryption.
  • Tim McLean for implementing RFC 8037.
  • Josh Cummings from the Spring Security team for contributing the JWS minter framework and many other patches.
  • Cedric Staub for adding explicit JCA provider interfaces.
  • Toma Velev for implementing the JSON Smart shading in v9.0.
  • Ville Kurkinen for adding initial Maven support.
  • David Ortiz for initiating RSA encryption development.
  • Quan Nguyen, Google Information Security Engineer, Project Wycheproof, for reporting Padding Oracle and integer overflow vulnerabilities in AES/CBC/HMAC decryption.
  • Devin Cook of Oracle Cloud Infrastructure (OCI) - Security Research Team.
  • Juraj Somorovsky for security related reviews, improvements and suggestions.
  • Antonio Sanso for his work in investigating invalid curve vulnerabilities in JOSE implementations.
  • Jürg Wullschleger and Markus Löwe for discovering StackOverflowError issues when parsing specially crafted JSON input and proposing suitable mitigations.
  • Lai Xin Chu for initial work on JWE.
  • Wisgary Torres from the Microsoft Xbox team for important feedback and bug reports.
  • Brian Campbell for JWT thumbprint debugging.
  • CertiVox UK for supporting the library development.
  • Casey Lee for adding a Java 6 build profile.
  • Dimitar A. Stoikov on adding support for AES ciphers with internally generated IV.
  • Aleksei Doroganov for adding ES256P support based on secp256k1 ECDSA.
  • Peter Laurina for contributing RSA-OAEP-512 support.
  • Everyone on the JOSE WG at the IETF.
  • Numerous other contributors of bug reports, fixes and suggestions.